The central aim of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of photoperiod and temperature on growth and physiological aspects of tambaqui. Fish reared in the dark at 29 and 32°C showed better performance compared to fish reared under extended light conditions at all temperatures. Among physiological responses, it has been observed that blood parameters tend to be disturbed with increasing temperature and that extended light conditions at low temperatures caused similar effects on the analyzed fish, suggesting blood hemoconcentration. Fish under extended light conditions showed an increase in glucose, cortisol, cholesterol, and total proteins, indicating additional physiological disturbances. In conclusion, our study shows that, unlike marine and temperate fish, C. macropomum, a fish species endemic to the Amazon, grows better in warmth dark, showing no significant physiological disturbances, similar to observations described for wild animals of this species. Our results support that changes in fish growth occur in response to environmental conditions. Therefore, fish species from freshwater, estuarine, and marine environments, must be specifically analyzed regarding the combination effects of photoperiod and temperature.